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Bone graft substitutes
The current gold standard of bone grafts is the autograft since it possesses all the characteristics necessary for new bone growth, namely osteoconductivity, osteogenicity and osteoinductivity. However, the autograft has its limitations, including 什麼是最低存款金額 Expert Option? donor-site morbidity and supply limitations, hindering this as an option for bone repair. An extensive list of currently available alternatives to bone grafts is provided, along with a classification scheme that divides these bone graft substitutes into five groups depending on the primary material composition: allograft, cell, factor, ceramic and polymer. Of the bone graft substitutes listed, several are discussed in detail. Beyond the current state of the art, attention is paid to what lies ahead in the field of bone graft substitutes. Biodegradable composite structures and various new architectures are discussed, as are newly developed polymeric materials, with tissue engineering providing the platform for future directions within this discipline.
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Giannoudis PV, Dinopoulos H, Tsiridis E. Giannoudis PV, et al. Injury. 2005 Nov;36 Suppl 3:S20-7. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2005.07.029. Injury. 2005. PMID: 16188545 Review.
Rueger JM. Rueger JM. Unfallchirurg. 1996 Mar;99(3):228-36. Unfallchirurg. 1996. PMID: 8685730 Review. German.
Chai F, Raoul G, Wiss A, Ferri J, Hildebrand HF. Chai F, et al. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2011 Sep;112(4):212-21. doi: 10.1016/j.stomax.2011.06.003. Epub 2011 Jul 23. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2011. PMID: 21783214 French.
Zhang Y, Wang Z. Zhang Y, et al. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008 Oct;22(10):1264-8. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008. PMID: 18979892 Review. Chinese.
Mallappa J, Vasanth D, Gowda TM, Shah R, Gayathri GV, Mehta DS. Mallappa J, et al. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2022 Jul-Aug;26(4):359-364. doi: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_882_20. Epub 2022 Jul 2. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2022. PMID: 35959304 Free PMC article.
Kim W, Jang CH, Kim G. Kim W, et al. Theranostics. 2022 Jul 11;12(12):5404-5417. doi: 10.7150/thno.74852. eCollection 2022. Theranostics. 2022. PMID: 35910797 Free PMC article.
Chiu YH, Chen IC, Su CY, Tsai HH, Young TH, Fang HW. Chiu YH, et al. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jul 8;23(14):7590. doi: 10.3390/ijms23147590. Int J Mol Sci. 2022. PMID: 35886941 Free PMC article.
Watson-Levings RS, Palmer GD, Levings PP, Dacanay EA, Evans CH, Ghivizzani SC. Watson-Levings RS, et al. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2022 Jun 28;10:901317. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2022.901317. eCollection 2022. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2022. PMID: 35837555 Free PMC article. Review.
Hampel GA, Yilmaz E, Massrey C, Clifton W, Iwanaga J, Loukas M, Tubbs RS. Hampel GA, et al. Cureus. 2022 May 1;14(5):e24655. doi: 10.7759/cureus.24655. eCollection 什麼是最低存款金額 Expert Option? 2022 May. Cureus. 2022. PMID: 35663670 Free PMC article. Review.
Vericiguat for the treatment of 什麼是最低存款金額 Expert Option? heart failure: mechanism of action and pharmacological properties compared with other emerging therapeutic options
Introduction: The significant morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF), notably in the most advanced forms of the disease, justify the need for novel therapeutic options. In the last year, the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator, vericiguat, has drawn the attention of the 什麼是最低存款金額 Expert Option? medical community following the report of reduced clinical outcomes in patients with worsening chronic HF (什麼是最低存款金額 Expert Option? WCHF).
Areas covered: The authors review the available data on the mechanism of action of vericiguat (cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway), its clinical development program, its role in HF management, and its future positioning in the therapeutic recommendations.
Expert opinion: cGMP deficiency has deleterious effects on the heart and contributes to the progression of HF. Different molecules, including nitric oxide (NO) donors, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and natriuretic peptides analogues, target the NO-sCG-cGMP pathway but have yielded conflicting results in HF patients. Vericiguat acts as a sGC stimulator thus targeting the NO-sGC-cGMP pathway by a different mechanism that complements the current pharmacotherapy for HF. Vericiguat has shown an additional statistical add-on therapy efficacy by reducing morbi-mortality in patients with WCHF. A better evaluation of HF severity might be an important determinant to guide the use of vericiguat among the available therapies.
Keywords: (5–8): cGMP pathway; heart failure (什麼是最低存款金額 Expert Option? hf); heart failure hospitalization (hfh); heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (hfref); reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (lvef); sGC stimulator; soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC); ventricular remodeling; vericiguat; worsening chronic heart failure (wchf).
Armstrong PW, Roessig L, Patel MJ, Anstrom KJ, Butler J, Voors AA, Lam CSP, Ponikowski P, Temple T, Pieske B, Ezekowitz J, Hernandez AF, Koglin J, O'Connor CM. Armstrong PW, et al. JACC Heart Fail. 2018 Feb;6(2):96-104. doi: 什麼是最低存款金額 Expert Option? 10.1016/j.jchf.2017.08.013. Epub 2017 Oct 11. JACC Heart Fail. 2018. PMID: 29032136 Review.
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